Abstracts

Table of Contents

The Relationship between God-Awareness and Self- Awareness / Mas'ood Nooralizadeh Miyanji, Abulqasim Bashiri, Mas'ood Janbozorgi................................................................................................................................................ 5

The Relationship between Righteousness and Courtesy and Personality, Religion, and Subjective Well-being(SWB) / Nasir Aqababaii.................................................................................................................................. 25

The Effect of lesser pilgrimage to Mecca on Mental Health and Happiness / Mohammad Reza Ahmadi, 'Abbas Ali Haratiyan................................................................................................................................................................................ 41

Moral Development: Change in Modern Approaches / Sadiq Karimzadeh ...................................................63

The Design and Validation of Spiritual outlook Measurement Questionnaire / Shahriyar Shahidi, Sa'eedeh Farajniya................................................................................................................................................................................................ 97

The Effect of Intervention Based on Spiritual Self and Family Self on the Decrease of University Students' Depression Signs / Muhsen Seyfi, Ahmad E'temadi, Abdullah Shafi'abadi.......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 117

The Relationship between Religious Orientation, Coping Styles, and Happiness of University Students / Fariborz Sadiqi Arfa'ii, Mohammad Reza Tamannaeifar, 'Atefeh 'Abedinabadi ..........135

 

The Relationship between Religious Orientation, Coping Styles, and Happiness of University Students

Fariborz Sadiqi Arfa'ii*, Mohammad Reza Tamannaeifar**, 'Atefeh 'Abedinabadi***

Abstract

The present paper tries to study the relationship between religious orientation, coping styles, and happiness of university students. To this end, a sample including 386 students was selected from statistical universe (all students of Kashan University in the academic year of 1390-1391 "AH"-solar), and Allport's religious orientation questionnaire, Endler's and Parker's inventory of coping with stressful situations, and Oxford happiness questionnaire were used to gather data. Such statistical indexes as Pearson correlation, variance analysis, t-test, and regression were used to analyze the data. The results of data analysis showed that there was a significant positive relationship between internal religious orientation and problem-oriented coping style (r=0/26), that there was a significant positive relationship between internal religious orientation and happiness (r=0/16), and that among the coping styles the problem-oriented one has a significant positive relationship with happiness (r=0/41).

Key words: religious orientation, coping style, happiness, university students.

 

The Effect of Intervention Based on Spiritual Self and Family Self on the Decrease of University Students' Depression Signs

Muhsen Seyfi*, Ahmad E'temadi**, Abdullah Shafi'abadi***

Abstract
The present paper tries to compile the protocol of this intervention and evaluate the rate of its effectiveness in treating depression. 24 female students of 'Allamah Tabatabaii University who had signs of depression based on Beck's depression test and clinical interview were randomly selected and divided into two groups (treatment group and control group). Then a twelve-session protocol of intervention based on spiritual self and family self were conducted on experiment group. T-test was used to analyze the data. The research findings showed that the subjects who had received intervention based on spiritual self and family self had less signs of depression than the control group. The follow-up results showed that this intervention is more effective to reduce the signs of depression in experiment group than in control group.
Key words: spiritual self, family self, depression, psychotherapy

 

The Design and Validation
of Spiritual outlook Measurement Questionnaire

Shahriyar Shahidi*, Sa'eedeh Farajniya**

Abstract
The present paper aims at designing and validating a questionnaire in order to "measure spiritual outlook". Accordingly, a test including forty three items with five choices was designed using "Likert scale scoring" system. The face and content validity of items were analyzed though asking the opinions of 19 expert professors, and their reliability was obtained (0/61) through conducting the test on 40 university students using "test-retest" method with a five- week interval. Then the questionnaire was completed by 235 students of Shahid Beheshti University and two factors with the special amount above 5 were identified using factor analysis by "varimax rotation" method. These two factors were as follows: "spiritual outlook", and "spiritual ability". Furthermore, internal consistency of questionnaire (0/91) was obtained through calculating Cornbach's Alpha. The research findings showed that the questionnaire of "measuring spiritual outlook "has appropriate validity and reliability and can be used as an appropriate tool for conducting research on spirituality and spiritual development.
Key words: questionnaire, outlook, spiritual, validity, reliability.

 

Moral Development: Change in Modern Approaches

Sadiq Karimzadeh*

Abstract
The present paper investigates and criticizes old and modern approaches to moral development and change in main orientations towards scientific study on it. The subject is studied through content analysis and its aim is to provide a framework for future comparative studies, specially in the field of religious ethics. Studies conducted in the past emphasize on the formation of superego and identification with the same-sex parent, trends based on individual's environmental influences, specially external reinforcements, child's dependency drive, observational learning process, self-organization trend, and reasoning system to understand social relations. Substitute conceptualizations have provided new insights as to the formation of the Four Component Model of Morality, the issue of procedural justice, considering others' view, self-perception, social reasoning, contractualism, and moral identity. The most important achievements of these orientations are as follows: emphasis on developmental-substitutional model versus phased-cumulative model, focus on trivial structures in ethics versus hierarchical cohesion and structural unity, emphasis on moral schema instead of stages, treatment of other domains of social-cognitive development versus neglecting them, focus on moral personality as the aim.
Key words: moral development, modern approaches, change.

 

The Effect of lesser pilgrimage to Mecca on Mental Health and Happiness

Mohammad Reza Ahmadi*, 'Abbas Ali Haratiyan**

Abstract
The present paper studied the influence of lesser pilgrimage to Mecca on university students' happiness and mental health. The statistical universe included all student caravans to Mecca to perform lesser pilgrimage in 1386 ('AH-solar). The statistical sample included 104 university students who were selected from two student caravans through cluster sampling. A semi-experimental method was used in this research. The data were analyzed using t-test, variance analysis, and Scheffe’s method. Oxford 29-item happiness questionnaire and 28 item questionnaire of general health were used in this research. The subjects completed these questionnaires in three stages, that is, one month before the pilgrimage (pretest), one day after performing the lesser pilgrimage (posttest), and one month after returning from pilgrimage (follow-up). The research findings showed that performing lesser pilgrimage influenced and increased subjects' level of happiness, and improved their mental health.
Key words: lesser pilgrimage, happiness, mental health.

 

The Relationship between Righteousness and Courtesy and Personality, Religion, and Subjective Well-being(SWB)

Nasir Aqababaii*

Abstract
The present paper aims at recognizing the position of righteousness and courtesy in personality and religion, and the relationship between these two virtues and subjective well-being. A sample including 450 university students who were selected through available method participated in this research. "HEXACO-60 personality inventory ", "self-evaluation scale of spirituality", scale of interest in religion", "single-item scales of religious orientation", "scale of subjective happiness, "and" scale of life satisfaction" were used to gather data. The research findings supported six-trait structure of HEXACO-60 personality inventory. Righteousness-courtesy as an independent factor was along with five traits of personality. This new trait had a positive relationship with religiousness and subjective well-being. The review of religious texts and experimental data showed that righteousness is of greater importance than courtesy for religiousness and well-being. According to this research, HEXACO inventory is a valid scale and righteousness-courtesy is an independent personality trait which has a positive role in well-being.
Key words: personality, HEXACO personality inventory, righteousness, courtesy, religion, subjective well-being.

 

The Relationship between God-Awareness and Self- Awareness

Mas'ood Nooralizadeh Miyanji*, Abulqasim Bashiri**, Mas'ood Janbozorgi***

Abstract
The present paper aims at investigating the relationship between God-awareness and self-awareness and elaborating on the role of God-awareness in self-awareness. The research method is correlative and retrogressive. 225 individuals were selected through random cluster sampling. The data were analyzed by God-awareness test and integrative self-knowledge scale which have necessary validity and reliability, as well as Pearson correlation, regression and other statistical indexes.
The research findings showed that there was a significant positive relationship between God-awareness and self-awareness and that God-awareness has a predictive role in self-awareness. These findings also indicate an important dimension of religiousness in expounding how it influences psychological functions. An increase in God-awareness will result in an increase in self-awareness. Furthermore, an increase in the knowledge and awareness of science of religion and religious commitment will result in an increase in God-awareness and self-awareness. Therefore, God-awareness as the fundamental factor of unity at the top of man's psychological organization exerts influence on the process of self-awareness in better functioning of "self", integrity and unity of personality and other psychological functions.
Key words: God-awareness, self-awareness, self, awareness, evocation(remembrance), religiousness

 


* Assistant professor of Kashan University, responsible writer fas@kashanu.ac.ir
** Assistant professor of Kashan University Tamanaei@kashanu.ac.ir
*** MA student of educational psychology Aabedin81@yahoo.com
Received: 2012/4/5- Accepted: 2012/10/30

* PhD student of counseling, 'Allamah Tabatabaii University mhseifi@gmail.com
** Associate professor of counseling department, 'Allamah Tabatabaii University ahmad_etemadi@yahoo.com
*** professor of counseling department, 'Allamah Tabatabaii University
Received: 2012/7/22- Accepted: 2012/11/26

* associate professor of psychology department, Shahid Beheshti University shahriarshahidi@hotmail.com
** MA student of counseling, Al-Zahra University saeidehfarajnia@gmail.com
Received: 2011/11/23- Accepted: 2012/10/14

* Assistant professor of IKI Skarimzadeh178@Yahoo.com
Received: 2012/5/28- Accepted: 2012/9/30

* Assistant professor of IKI m.r.Ahmadi313@Gmail.com
** Graduate of Seminary and MA student of psychology, IKI a.haratiyan@gmail.com
Received: 2012/5/15 - Accepted: 2012/9/17

* PhD student of general psychology, 'Allamah Tabatabaii University Naseragha@gmail.com
Received: 2012/5/19 - Accepted: 2012/11/26

*. Graduate of High level of Seminary and MA of psychology mnoor@gmail.com
** Assistant professor of IKI
*** Assistant professor of University and Seminary research center.
Received: 2012/6/16- Accepted: 2012/10/18