چكيده لاتين / رحيم راستى‌تبار

 

English Abstracts

Translated By Seyyed Rahim Rastitabar

A Survey on the intelligence and Personality of Successful

and Unsuccessful Seminary Students

Muhammad Rezaei

There has been a growing concern among scholars for a basic study of personality factors and their effects on individuals cognitive, emotional, and behavioral spheres. The present study aimed at examining personality factors, especially the intelligence of seminary students (both successful and unsuccessful) in Qom.

To this end, 120 subjects from 2nd and 4th grades of 5 schools were selected randomly and divided into two groups of successful and unsuccessful.

After conducting two tests (Cattell's 16 factors personality test, form A; and Cattell's intelligence test, form B) the data were analyzed using statistical techniques including: coefficient of correlation, mean, standard deviation, variance analysis, and the following results were obtained:

There is a significant difference in factor O (fearful, self-doubting; confidant, calm) of Cattell's 16 factors between successful and unsuccessful seminary students; that is, successful students have lower levels of stress and anxiety compared to unsuccessful students.

The successful students enjoy a higher level of intelligence than unsuccessful ones.

KEY WORDS: personality, intelligence, successful, unsuccessful.

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The Role of Prayer in Peace of Mind

Ali Ahmad Panahi

The present study was conducted to study the relationship between adherenc to say prayers and mental peace, in high school students in Qom. To do so, 604 students from different high schools in four wards of Qom were selected randomly.

After using a questionnaire (the questionnaire for being adherent to say prayers and anxiety test of Spiel Bergerm), the data obtained were analyzed using the statistical techniques and the following results were obtained:

1. there is a Significant relationship between being adherent to say prayers and the students'anxiety level; the more the students are adherent to say prayers, the more they will enjoy peace of mind.

2. the girls are more adherent to say prayers than the boys.

3. the relationship between being adherent to say prayers and anxiety of state is stronger than its relationship to anxiety of trait; that is, the role of being adherent to say prayers is greater in anxiety of state.

KEY WORDS: being adherent to say prayers, peace of the mind, anxiety of state, anxiety of trait.

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The Pathology of Behavioral and Emotional Problems of Female

Adolescents in Deprived Families

Maryam Vafaei/Maryam Roshan

Various dimensions of children's behavioral-emotional disorders have caused many scientific views and researches to focus on this issue. Children who are subjected to the risk of behavioral, adaptation and emotional problems form a large percentage of youths today. Studies on emotional-behavioral disorders of children and youths have increased in number since 1374, and studies have shown that family interventions are more effective than individual interventions and treatments, suggesting that the root of these problems is in the family. The family risky factors cause children's susceptibility to behavioral-emotional disorders. This susceptibility, in turn, explains the child's tendency to negative consequences of growth under risky conditions. the family preserving factors, too, alters, refines, or improves the child's reactions to undesirable environmental events. Adolescents' altruistic behavior reflects the extent of internalization of positive values, and is the basis of psychological capacity for displaying positive evolutionary outcomes. This study was conducted on eighty five girls (12/5 years old on average) in of Hamadan a underprivileged region - considered as a vulnerable region. The purpose of this study was to determine the role of family determinants in the psycho-social health of the adolescent girls under the theoretical paradigm of "psycho-social vulnerability". The results showed a positive, strong, and significant relationship between the risky family determinants and the girls' behavioral-emotional problems on one side, and between family undesirable events and the girls' behavioral-emotional problems on the other.

KEY WORDS: behavioral problems, emotional problems, deprived families, adolescents.

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Religion and Mental Health

Abolfazl Sajedi

This paper is to explain the religious mechanisms that provideg mental health. To do so, it first looks briefly at the nature of mental health as viewed in different psychological schools and in Islam; then, it deals with those parameters of mental health admitted by western scholars too, and investigates the role of religion in realization of those parameters. In this article, the concept of mental health is evaluated by reviewing the definitions provided by different scholars such as Goldstein, Jahuda, Wentiz, Alport, Chahen, and various schools of biology, psychoanalysis, behaviorism, and humanism; then, the religion's mechanisms (such as worship and spiritual experiences and . . . ) to realize these parameters are mentioned.

KEY WORDS: religion, mental health, spiritual experiences, worship, health.

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The Function of Religious actions in the Mental Health

Seyyed Mahdi Musavi asl

Today, studying the effects of piety on mental health is a practical and interesting topic for both scholars and ordinary people. Although different parameters of piety are closely interrelated, they can be classified under two main categories, i.e. "beliefs and "actions", and studied separately. Here, we just study the role of religious actions on mental health.

In the first place, the religious actions themselves can be classified as either ritual or moral. A ritual action is usually performed in connection with God (or His saints), but a moral action is performed to establish connections with others. In this article, we study the role of ritual action in mental health, and in the next issue of the journal, we will explore the role of moral behavior in this connection. Ritual actions consist of various types such as prayer, fasting, pilgrimage, ritual seclusion or I' tekaf, and invocation. These common effects as well as specific ones, among which we have chosen the following ones to deal with, are as follows: mental peace, heightening the mental capacity, satisfying the need for worship, personal consistency, inner purification, obtaining moral virtues, strengthening of personal will, preparing the ground for returning to oneself, social support and gaining religious and mystical experiences.

KEY WORDS: religion, mental health, ritual actions, mental peace, moral virtues.

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Psychology and Internet Pathological effects

Muhammad Sadiq Shojaie

Since early 1990s, there have been a lot of studies and researches on the psychological effects of Internet on human's behavior and health. Today, Internet is an important issue for most countries, especially developing countries, including Islamic ones. Being aware of the effects of Internet and designating appropriate strategies to use it properly and preventing or at least reducing its possible negative effects is of great importance.

In this article, after giving a brief history of Internet, its psychological aspects and its positive and negative effects on human's behavior and health have been investigated. This article, which reflects some of the empirical researches in this field, shows that Internet along with its undeniable positive effects has some undesirable effects both on personal and social aspects of human's life.

KEY WORDS: psychology of Internet, Internet Pathological effects, Internet and morality, addiction to Internet, web-based pornography, web-based relationship, the axes of psychology of Internet.

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A Review and Critique of Freud's Approach to Religion

Rahim Narooie

Freud considers the belief in God as the basis of many religions _ an illusion and believes that God is the very idea of father, having exalted in human's mind, to which human has come because of recalling his childhood helplessn and paying attention to his lifelong needs. He regards faith and piety as neurotical behaviors as obsessive - conpulsive disorder, and believes that once the scientific horizons in human's life have broadened enough, the religion would be banished completely. As critique to Freud's view, we should say:

a) Freud was an irreligious or even quite an anti-religious person. So we cannot say that he has commented on religion impartially.

b) Freud's worldview is merely a materialistic one. which is in conflict with the views of most people and scholars who believe in a transcendent existence beyond the material world.

c) Freud's perception of "God" and his approach to faith and piety has no proof other than his own interpretations based on non-scientific fictions.

d) It is now one hundred years since Freud offered his theories on the nature of religion and piety among people. Since then, the human's knowledge of the rules governing the world has increased and as some scholars believe at least the technologies are at their final stage of progress; but contrary to Freud's opinion, religious movements have not declined in number.

KEY WORDS: God, religion, Freud, human, psychology.