Constructing and Exploring the Reliability of the Islamic Type of Craving – Contentment Measure


Abbasali Haratiyan / MA student of psychology, IKI                                                                                         a.haratiyan@gmail.com

Mojgan Agah Haris / Assistant Professor of Garmsar Payam-e- Noor University

Zahra Mohammadi / AM Student of Education, Arak University

Fatemeh Sadat-e- Shamsi Nejad / AM Student of Clinical Psychology, Qom Islamic Azad University

Received: 2014/02/06- Accepted: 2014/08/01



The aim of this research is constructing a craving contentment measure based on Islamic doctrines which can be used for evaluating the vice of craving and virtue of contentment. After constructing and exploring the validity of the initial assessment, a questionnaire with 29 questions was conducted and completed by 475 university students and seminary students who were chosen through random cluster-sampling. The validity of the measure was examined and, resting on the 91/14 percent of experts accommodation and significance of Kondal's coincidence coefficient the findings show that the measure has large-scale validity content. The finding analysis shows that the Islamic type of craving – contentment measure has four factors: (material preoccupation/ feeling of material safety, material arbitrary/ material self-control, weakness in religious knowledge and zeal/ excess of religious knowledge and zeal, feeling of material deprivation and need/ material satisfaction). The retest coefficient: 0/887, Cronbach's Alpha: 0/863 and coefficient of split- half: 0/823 show that this measure in strongly reliable. Given the findings of research, we can say that this questionnaire has large-scale reliability and validity and provide coherent factors which can have an effective role in studying peoples' moral characteristics of craving contentment when they taken into account.

Key words: evaluation of morality, craving, contentment, validity and reliability.

Cases of Compulsion-Acrasy of Checking among Religious Individuals and the Treatment Methods in Islamic Sources of Hadith


Rahim Naroo’ii Nosrati / Assistant professor of psychology department, IKI      rnarooei@yahoo.com

Received: 2014/03/02- Accepted: 2014/07/25



The present paper seeks to define the cases of compulsion-acrasy of checking among religious individuals and mention the treatment methods in Islamic sources of hadith. These cases are drawn from Islamic sources of hadiths, especially Shiite ones, through religious deduction. The same method was used to extract the forms of therapy from authentic sources and define them. This study refers to six cases of compulsion-acrasy of checking which are common among religious individuals: 1. compulsion of checking excretion organs; 2. compulsion of checking minor ritual ablution; 3. compulsion of checking major ritual ablution; 4. compulsion of checking the fulfillment of a debt and rights of men; 5. compulsion of checking prayers; and 6. compulsion of checking nearness to God and feeling of hypocrisy. Six interlinked components were found to cure these compulsions: 1. negating and rejecting perceptive sensations; 2. determining the type of cognition to act; 3. exact determination of behavior boundaries; 4. acting out correct cognitions; 5. Continuation of the act; and 6. refraining from adherence to incorrect beliefs.

Key words: compulsion-acrasy of checking, checking excretion organs, checking minor ritual ablution, checking major ritual ablution,  checking the fulfillment of a debt and rights of men,  checking prayers, checking nearness to God and feeling of hypocrisy.

The Effectiveness of Participating in the Ceremonies of the First Ten Days of Muharram on the Degree of Religiosity of the Mournful (a Case Study on the Students of Nazarabad Azad University, Karaj)

Mohammad Husseinkhani / PhD student of social sciences, Academy of Sciences f Tajikistan           


Mohammad Yekkeh Fallah / MA of general psychology, Arak Azad Islamic University

Received: 2013/10/26- Accepted: 2014/03/11



Muharram mourning ceremonies which are common among Muslims, particularly Shi’as, are intended to revive ‘Ashura uprising and promote the spirit of freedom and chivalrousness. These ceremonies are regarded as a kind of cultural behavior which affects other behaviors, including religiosity as a social phenomenon. The present paper seeks to investigate the extent of effectiveness of these mourning ceremonies on the degree of religiosity of the students (male and female) who study at Nazarabad Azad Islamic University in the academic year of 2012-2013 (1391-1392 solar), using a semi-experimental method. The sample includes 90 students (including 52 male students and 38 female students) who were chosen through random sampling. This research used Azerbaijani’s questionnaire on religious orientation, which was conducted in two stages at monthly intervals. The data were analyzed by independent and dependent and one way ANOWA. The results show that the students’ degree of religiosity after the test was significantly higher than that before the test. This significant difference was also detected in the subtests on section orientation. Furthermore, the scores which the female subjects have got are higher than those of the male subjects. It can be said that religious rituals affect students’ religiosity, particularly female students.

Key words: Islam, morality, religiosity, Muharram mourning ceremonies, beliefs, religious rituals.

The Psychometric Characteristics of the Concept of God Questionnaire

Raziyeh Nasirzadeh / PhD Student of Clinical Psychology, Shahid Beheshti University


Kazem Rasoolzadeh Tabataba'I / Associate Professor of Psychology Department, Tarbiat Modares University

Narjes Erfanmanesh / PhD Student of Psychology, al- Zahra University

Received: 2013/07/19- Accepted: 2013/12/05



Considering the fact that the perception of the concept of God is one of the means of people's recognition of religious beliefs, this research seeks to conduct an initial examination of the psychometric characteristics of the questionnaire on the concept of God among students. The sample includes 502 students from shiraz Universities (including 281 female students and 221 male students) aged 18 to 35. They were chosen through random cluster sampling. Following the translation and initial preparation of the questionnaire about the concept of God, it was distributed among and completed by the subjects. For assessing the validity the study made use of a retest and Cronbach's Alpha.  The validity of the retest and Alpha's amount of the whole questionnaire was 0/79 and 0/71 respectively. Also, both the construct validity and content validity of the questionnaire were obvious. In general, the results of this study shows that the questionnaire about the concept of God is reliable and can be used for evaluating religious beliefs and it is fitting to Iranian students.

Key words: concept of God, reliability, factor analysis.

The Relationship between University Students' Thinking about the Hereafter and Their Five of Personality Characteristics


Fatimah Pourebrahimi / MA Student of Educational Science, Azad University of Tehran, Central Branch, The College of Shahid Bahonar, Kerman

Mas’ood Karimifar / MA of General Psychology, Allamah Tabatabaii University

Salar Rezaiinezhad / MA of Psychology, Allamah Tabatabaii University

Vahid Manzari Tavakkoli / PhD Student of Psychology, Isfahan University and Member of Club for Young Researcher and Elites, Baft, Iran                                                                                                                                      manzari.v63@gmail.com

Received: 2013/11/11- Accepted: 2013/04/14



“Survival instinct” is one of man’s prime motives and thinking about the hereafter is one of the important aspects of spirituality. The present paper seeks to investigate the relationship between university students' thinking about the hereafter and their five personality characteristics. To this end, 220 students from Tehran University were chosen for the survey. They completed Ibrahimi- Bahrami’s scales about reflection on the hereafter (2010- 1389 solar) and NEO-FFI. The data were analyzed by statistical indexes including average, standard deviation, Pearson’s correlation coefficient and stepwise regression. The results show that the relationship of overall reflection on the hereafter with extraversion, openness, conscientiousness and agreeableness is significant and positive and its relationship with neuroticism is significant and negative. The results of stepwise regression show that conscientiousness and extraversion explain about %31 of the variance of reflection on the hereafter.

Key words: thinking about the hereafter, five personality characteristics, spirituality.

The Relationship of Spiritual Well-being
and Hope with Life Satisfaction among the Aged

Nader Hajloo / Assistant Professor of Psychology Department of Muhaqqiq Ardabili University


Isa jaʻfari / Assistant Professor, Astara Payam –e- Noor University                   esa_jafary@yahoo.com

Received: 2013/07/23- Accepted: 2013/12/16



The present paper seeks to investigate the relationship of spiritual well-being and hope with life satisfaction among the aged. A descriptive- correlative method is used in this research, and the statistical population includes all the aged in Ardabil. The data are based on a study on 100 aged people who were chosen randomly through simple sampling method, and questionnaires about spiritual well-being, hope and life satisfaction were used for gathering the data which were analyzed by Pearson correlation coefficient, standard multiple regression and stepwise multiple regression. The results show that there is a significant positive relationship between religious well-being and hope, between religious well-being and life satisfaction, between existential well-being and hope, between existential well-being and life satisfaction and between hope and life satisfaction. Furthermore, they show that life satisfaction among the aged can be accurately predicted through the variables of spiritual well-being and hope. The portion of these variables in predicting the life satisfaction of the aged is noticeable even when gender, age and educational background are controlled.

Key words: spiritual well-being, hope, life satisfaction, old person.

The Relationship of Religious Identity Types and Aspects of Religiosity with Students' Psychological Well-being

Shahram Vahedi / Associate Professor of Educational psychology, Tabriz University

                                                                                                                             vahedi117@ yahoo.com

Reyhaneh Ahmadian / MA student of Educational psychology

Received: 2013/01/27- Accepted: 2013/06/14



The main aim of this research is to investigate the structural relations of the types of religious identity and aspects of religiosity with students' psychological well-being. 667 students (including 297 male students and 370 female students) from four colleges of Tabriz University; human sciences college, technical- engineering college, medical sciences college and agriculture college took part in this research. The testees were asked to complete Bell's questionnaire on religious identity, Glack and Stark's questionnaire about aspects of religiosity and Riff's psychological welfare scale. The data which were fixed through multi variable variance analysis test and structural equations modeling (SEM) have been analyzed. The results show that in all variables there is a significant difference between male and female students (p≥0/01). Also the results show that the offered model has particular suitability (p≥0/05). Aspects of religiosity and religious identity types are considered as significant predicted variables in the psychological well-being of the youth. Aspects of religiosity have direct and indirect relationship with psychological well-being.

Key words: religious identity, aspects of religiosity, psychological well-being, students.