The Model of Predicting Religious Intelligence
on the Basis of Attributive Style and Self-Control Style


Maliheh Arinpour / MA of clinical psychology, Islamic Azad University of Birjand malii.aryan@gmail.com

Fatemeh Shahabi Zadeh / Assistant professor of Islamic Azad University of Birjand

Abdolmajid Bahreinian / Assistant professor of Shahid Beheshti University

Received: 2013/11/18 - Accepted: 2014/05/12



The present research seeks to present the indicators of a model of religious intelligence, taking in consideration the role of attributive style and self-control style. For this purpose, 372 students, who were chosen through multi-stage sampling, completed Seligman’s scale of attributive style, Tanjeni’s scale of self-control style and King’s religious intelligence scale. Path analysis and maximum likelihood were used for analyzing the results .The findings show that the style of external and stable assignment of success and the style of general and stable assignment of failure, respectively predict the increase and decrease in existential critical thinking through self-control. Besides, there are direct paths between the external assignment of success, existential critical thinking and working out the personal meaning, stable assignment of success and higher consciousness, general assignment of success and increase in alertness. The present conceptual model shows that a study of the kind of attributive attitude of the individual in his/her everyday life can contribute to the clarification of self-control process and religious intelligence.

Key words: attributive style, self-control, religious intelligence, existential critical thinking, working out the personal meaning, promotion of alertness level, higher consciousness.

Prediction of Cognitive and Emotional Components of Happiness
Based on Daily Spiritual Experiences


Maryam Bordbar / PhD student of educational psychology, Shiraz University bordbar_m2000@yahoo.com

Mohammad Mazidi Sharaf Abadi / Associate professor of principles of education, Shiraz University

Received: 2014/02/23 - Accepted: 2014/09/03



Happiness, what modern man has lost, is the most fundamental concept in positive psychology. In the last two decades, the number of studies investigating the factors associated with happiness has increased. This study aims to investigate the role of cognitive and affective components of happiness in daily spiritual experiences. To this end, 193 students of Shiraz University, selected by cluster sampling, completed questionnaires of daily spiritual experiences, life satisfaction, positive and negative emotions. Data were statistically analyzed using multiple regression techniques in a simultaneous way. The findings indicate that, total scores of daily spiritual experiences have positive and meaningful relationship with cognitive and emotional components of happiness. Moreover, the two components of feeling the presence of God and relation with Him in everyday experiences can predict life satisfaction and positive emotion in a positive way and negative emotion in a negative way.

Keywords: daily spiritual experiences, cognitive component of happiness, emotional component of happiness, students.

The Strategies towards Positive and Negative Religious Cope:
Psychoanalysis of the scale of RCOPE among Iranian Students


Farzaneh Davud Vandi / MA student of educational psychology, Azad central University of Tehran

Omid Shokri / Assistant professor of psychology department, Shahid Beheshti University

Received: 2013/11/25 - Accepted: 2014/04/27



The present research aims to investigate the psychological scale of religious cope among Iranian students (male and female). 355 university students (155 males and 200 females) were asked to fill out a Persian version of RCOPE. The statistical procedure of hierarchical factor analysis was used to determine the factorial validity of RCOPE. The internal consistency of RCOPE was examined by Cronbach Alpha coefficients. An analysis of the main components through Oblimin rotation show that RCOPE consists of two strategies towards positive and negative religious cope. The results of factor analysis of positive strategies towards religious cope have yielded seven factors, including religious purification and seeking divine intercession, spiritual aid, active religious submission, fair religious reassessment, spiritual ties and religious orientation, referring to religious authorities or those sharing the same belief and determining the scope of religious activities. The results of factor analysis of the strategies towards negative religious cope indicate five factors, including reassessment based on the idea of God as a punisher, Satan-based reassessment, spiritual dissatisfaction, passive religious submission and inter-individual religious dissatisfaction acquired by experience.

Key words: strategies towards positive and negative religious cope, religious cope scale, psychological characteristics.

Spiritual-Religious Loneliness:
Developing and Assessing the Validity of a Scale for Evaluating the Positive and Negative Aspects of Feeling of Loneliness


Fatemeh Ghabezi / MA in psychology, Shahid Beheshti University f_ghabezi@live.com

Shahla Pakdaman / Assistant professor of Shahid Beheshti University

Jalil Fath Abadi / Assistant professor of Shahid Beheshti University

Mohammad Reza Hassan zadeh Tavakoli / PhD in educational psychology, Shahid Beheshti University

Received: 2013/11/20 - Accepted: 2014/04/22



This research which seeks to clarify the meaning of spiritual-religious loneliness and develop a scale for measuring it among university students, is based on exploratory factor analysis. In order to determine the validity of the scale, the primary questions designed on the basis of the theoretical foundations and scales of spirituality measurement were evaluated by 13 BA students and 17 MA students of psychology. After making modifications, corrections, 605 students of Shahid Beheshti University (355 females and 239 males) who were chosen through convenience sampling filled out a questionnaire of 49 questions on spiritual- religious loneliness. The results of analyzing the constituents through main varimax rotation show that four factors of feeling of loneliness are involved: with relation to religion’s guardians, with relation to the meaning of life, with relation to God, and the positive factor of relation with oneself. Moreover, the reliability coefficient obtained through Cronbach alpha for 44 questions which was 0.93 and the test- retest coefficient of factors at a two-week interval which range between 0.68 and 0.91, indicate the validity of the scale.

Key words: feeling of religiousspiritual loneliness, positive and negative aspects of feeling of loneliness, factor analysis, validity.

The Effectiveness of Religion-Based Cognitive Therapy
on Redcing the Psychological Symptoms of Cancer Patients


Mehri Mollaei / PhD student of general clinical psychology, Mohaghegh Ardebili University, Ardebil


Setareh Jani / MA of clinical psychology, Azad Islamic University, consulting group, Pars Abad Moghan, Iran

Majid Mahmood Aliloo / professor of clinical psychology, Tabriz University

Asghar Pour Esmaeili / PhD student of psychology, Mohaghegh Ardebili University, Ardebil

Received: 2014/01/27 - Accepted: 2014/06/15



This research seeks to investigate the effectiveness of religion-based cognitive therapy on reducing the psychological symptoms of cancer patients. This research project is quasi experimental design with a pre-test, post- test given to a control group. From among 300 patients supported by Arezoo Charity Center in Pars Abad Moqan, 30 patients (15 females and 15 males) were chosen and divided into two groups: experimental group and control group, and convenience sampling was used in this study which was based on SCL-25 Symptom Checklist. The experimental group attended 8 two-hour sessions on religion-based cognitive therapy, whereas the control group received no treatment. Multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA) was used for making a comparison between the means. The results show that religion-based cognitive therapy reduces all the aspects in SCL-25 scale except schizophrenia, somatization and obsessive-compulsive disorder. Moreover, religion-based cognitive therapy can be used as a supplementary treatment alongside the medical treatments to cure the psychological problems of cancer.

Key words: cancer, religion-based cognitive therapy, psychological symptoms.

A Prediction of Appreciation on the Basis of Spiritual Well-being,
Social Support and Stress among Teenage Girls


Shiva Kadkhoda zadeh / MA student of general psychology, Isfahan University Shiva.Kadhodazade@yahoo.com

Hossein Ali Mehrabi / Assistant professor of psychology department, Isfahan University

Mehrdad Kalantari /Associate professor of psychology department, Isfahan University

Received: 2013/12/08 - Accepted: 2014/04/17



The present research investigates the question of predicting appreciation on the basis of spiritual well-being, social support and stress among the teenage girls of Shahin Shahr. The research project is a correlation design in which 337 teenage girls, who were randomly chosen as independent samples, filled out the questionnaires on appreciation, spiritual well-being, social support and stress scale, anxiety, and depression (DASS-21). Pearson regression coefficient and stepwise regression were used for analyzing the data. The results show that the relationship of appreciation with spiritual well-being and three aspects of social support (p<0.01) is meaningful positive and its relationship with stress meaningful negative (p<0.01).

The results of regression analysis also show that enjoying family support, spiritual well-being and friends’ support can contribute to predicting appreciation. These findings point out that appreciation is affected by social support, spiritual well-being and stress. Some intervening programs should be designed to promote the feeling of appreciation.

Key words: appreciation, spiritual well-being, social support, stress, teenage girls.

The Relationship of Religious Orientation
with Mental Health and Moral Change


Hassan Etesami Nia / MA student of clinical psychology of Saveh Islamic Azad University, psychology department hasanetesaminia@yahoo.com

Rahim Naruee Nosrati / Assistant professor of IKI.

Mphammad Reza Ahmadi / Assistant professor of IKI.

Received: 2013/10/29 - Accepted: 2014/04/09



This research seeks to investigate the relationship of religious orientation with moral change and mental health. To this end, a descriptive-correlation method was used in this research and, 384 high school students (192 boys and 192 girls) in Qom in the academic year 1391-1392 were randomly chosen by multi-stage sampling. The data collected from questionnaires on religious orientation, moral change and SCL -90-R, and were analyzed by using SPSS software, t Test, correlation and stepwise regression. The results show that mental health has a positive and meaningful relationship with religious orientation and moral change. Also, religious orientation, gender and level of proficiency can predict mental health. These findings show that improving religious orientation and promoting students’ level of proficiency can pave the way for a better public mental health.

Key words: religious orientation, moral change, mental health.