The Development of Religiosity in Early Childhood: an Islamic- Psychological Approach


Mahmoud Nozari / Assistant Professor of educational Psychology /Howza and University Research center


Received: 2016/02/07 - Acceopted: 2016/06/19



The present study investigates "the development of religiosity in early childhood" from the view of Islam and psychology, in order to have a more comprehensive and deeper understanding of this issue. This study is mainly concerned with the commonalities and differences between the two approaches. The results of this comparative study indicate that the two approaches differ in terms of describing and explaining the foundations and roots of religiosity. According to psychology, the prime roots of religiosity are ascribed to the child's experiences of the surrounding environment. Islam sees that the roots of religiosity should be found in the child’s innate nature, i.e. love of goodness and perfect happiness, and the child's experiences of the surrounding environment can only prepare the ground for the development of or deviation from innate nature. Concerning how religiosity develops, the two shares the view that emphasis on creating safe and dynamic environment contributes to optimum development of religiosity and they emphasize that child- parents experiences are recorded in the child’s psychological system and have impact on the child’s future religiosity.

 Key words: religious development, child, psychological approach, Islamic approach.

A Comparative Study of the Effectiveness of Spiritual- Therapy
and Schema -Therapy on Students’ Depression


Raheb Asefi / MA at general psychology / Payam-noor University of Tehran    rahebasafi@yahoo.com

Ahmad Alipur / professor of psychology / Payam-noor University of Tehran

Majid Saffary niya / Associate professor of psychology / Payam-noor University of Tehran

Received: 2014/08/15 - Acceopted: 2014/12/31



The main aim of this study is to compare between the effectiveness of spirituality therapy and effectiveness of schema-therapy on treating the depression from which some Payamnoor University students in Semirom suffer. Those who had been previously diagnosed with depression by a clinical psychologist and were called to participate in the tests of this study were selected by using a "convenient sampling method". The test of "Beck’s Depression» (BDI-II) was used to diagnose depression, and the test of religious, traditional history (RSHI) was used to measure spirituality. The subjects who had appropriate criteria for treatment were randomly chosen from the experimental group and control group. Two treatment groups participated in eight sessions, while the control group did not received no treatment. In the end, "Beck’s Depression Test" (BDI-II) was used again for measuring the treatment interventions of all three groups. The obtained data were analyzed by using covariance analysis. The results show that spirituality-therapy and schema-therapy are significantly effective in treating students' depression. Moreover, a comparison between the two methods shows that there is a significant difference between them; spirituality- therapy seems to be more effective than Schema-therapy in treating depression.

Key words: depression, spirituality-therapy, schema –therapy.

The Role of Differentiation and Personality Characteristics
in the Rate of Mental- Spiritual Development among Married Students


Fatemeh Daemi/ PhD student of health psychology, Kharazmi University            daemi.f@hotmail.com

Masood Janbozorgi/ Associate professor of psychology, Hawzah and University. Qom

Received: 2014/07/19 - Acceopted: 2014/12/10



This research seeks to investigate the role of differentiation and personality characteristics in the rate of mental-spiritual development. To achieve this aim, 220 married students were chosen from among the students at Tehran University and Islamic Azad University, Faculty of Sciences and Research and an available method was used. They answered all the questions in the questionnaires about demography, differentiation, personality and mental- spiritual development. After that, the data was analyzed by correlation and a multivariable regression test. After analyzing the findings, the results confirmed by Pearson’s correlation showed that the relationship of differentiation, acceptability and fidelity with mental-spiritual development is positive and significant, and the relationship between neuroticism and mental-spiritual evolution is negative and significant. The results of multivariable regression showed that differentiation and the characteristic of acceptability which personality has play a predictive role in mental-spiritual development. It seems that, the higher the level of differentiation of married people and the more acceptability and fidelity they have, the higher their grade of mental-spiritual development, and the higher the degree of their neuroticism, the lower level of their mental-spiritual development will be.

Key words: differentiation, personality, mental-spiritual development.

The Role of Moral Qualities of Pride, Greed and Jealousy
in Predicting Neuroticism


Seyyed Abbas Satoorian / PhD student of general psychology, Imam Khomeini educational and research institute        sabbas61@gmail.com

Received: 2015/07/06 - Acceopted: 2015/11/14



According to Islamic teachings, moral vices are among the main threats to mental health. Using a descriptive method, the present paper investigates the role of moral qualities of pride, greed and jealousy in predicting neuroticism. To this end, 384 students were randomly chosen from Khomein "Azad Islamic" University and "multi-stage sampling" was used. Questionnaires on five characteristics of personality, Islamic scales of "greed–contentment", "pride–humbleness" and "jealousy" were used for gathering the data, which were analyzed by using Pearson correlation and stepwise regression. The results show that the components of "feeling of deprivation and inferiority", "deprivation and material need", "chagrin resulting from comparison", "the need for social support", "finding interest in divesting others of prosperity", and " material disinhibition" can predict part of the variance for neuroticism. Feeling of inferiority and lack of a secure inner base make the proud, greedy and jealous person in need of external world, environment and social relationships to express such qualities, which cause him/her seek compensation through cognitive, emotional and behavioral mechanisms, after having experienced several negative emotions.

Key words: moral qualities, pride, greed, jealousy, neuroticism.

The Spiritual Predictors of Nurses’ Contenment in Married Life:
the Role of Spiritual Well-Being and Spritual Reality in Life


Nader Hajloo / Professor at the Department of Psychology, Mohaqeq Ardabili University, Iran

Isa Ja’fari / Assistant Professor at the Department of Psychology, Payam Noor University, Tehran, Iran


Rasool Heshmati / Assistant Professor at the Department of Psychology, Tabriz University, Tabriz, Iran

Received: 2015/01/25 - Acceopted: 2015/07/26



Identifying the factors in nurses’ contentment in married life is important because they are under pressure of work. The present study seeks to examine the role of spiritual well-being and spiritual reality in life in predicting nurses, contentment in married life. A "descriptive-correlative" research method was used in this study, and the statistical population includes all the nurses in the city of Talesh who were chosen by using a "comprehensive" sampling method. Questionnaires on " spiritual reality ", "spiritual well-being" and " contentment in married life " were used for collecting the data which were analyzed by using statistical tests of "standard multiple regression" and "hierarchical regression". The results show that the variables of religious well-being, existential well-being and spiritual reality in life can accurately predict nurses’ contentment in married life. Moreover, It is evident that all the three variables mentioned above can strongly predict contentment in married life by controlling the effects of nurses' gender and age. It is suggested that experts in mental health and family counselors pay attention to the role of spiritual well-being and spiritual reality in life for improving nurses' contentment in married life.

Key words: spiritual well-being, spiritual reality in life, contentment in married life, nurses.

The Relationship of the Degree of Adherence to Religious Beliefs with Resilience and Optimism among the Students of Bu-Ali Sina University


Mohammad Reza Zoghi Paydar/ assistant professor of psychology department, Bu-Ali Sina University

Safdar Nabi Zadeh/ MA student of educational university, Bu-Ali Sina University


Rahil Zendeh Bodi / BA student of general psychology, Bu-Ali Sina University

Received: 2014/08/26 - Acceopted: 2015/02/12



Optimism and resilience are among the effects which adherence to religious beliefs exerts on people. Since religious sources are considered as a great support for optimism and resilience, people whose religious orientation is strong, are expected to be more optimistic and more resilient to problems than other people. This research seeks to predict the constructs of resilience and optimism on the basis the degree of adherence to religious beliefs among students. The statistical sample consists of all students at Bu-Ali Sina University for the academic years 92-93(solar), who are 10593 students altogether. The sample consists of 200 students who were randomly chosen from eight colleges by using a classified sampling method. They completed the optimism questionnaire (LOT-R), the scale of self-measuring of practical obligation to Islamic beliefs (Navidi) and the Conner-Davidson resilience Scale (CD-RISC). The obtained data were analyzed by the statistical Regression test. The findings showed that adherence to religious beliefs has an effective role in predicting the resilience constructs (β =0/44, p<0/001) and optimism (β =0/51, p<0/001) among students.

Key words: adherence to religious beliefs, resilience, optimism, students.

The Relationship of Fidelity to Religion and Forgiveness with the Kind of Relationship between the Couples and Spouse’s Family among Women


Simin Ghasemi/ PhD student of Counseling, Isfahan University                   Ghasemi.s77@gmail.com

Azra E’temadi/ Associate professor of Counseling department, Isfahan University

Received: 2014/09/16 - Acceopted: 2015/03/01



This research seeks to investigate the relationship of fidelity to religion and forgiveness with the kind of relationship between the couples and the spouse’s family among women. So, 372 women, who were randomly chosen by using a multi-stage sampling method, answered the scale for measuring fidelity to religion, a questionnaire about forgiveness and a questionnaire about the kind of relationship between the couples and spouse’s family. The data were stepwise analyzed by Pearson correlation and regression method. The results show that the good relationship between the couples and the spouse’s family has positive correlation with fidelity to religion and forgiveness, and has negative correlation with lack of fidelity to religion and religious ambivalence. Furthermore, the poor relationship between the couples and the spouse’s family has positive correlation with lack of fidelity to religion and religious ambivalence, and has negative correlation with fidelity to religion and forgiveness (P>0/01). Also, the results of regression analysis show that the fidelity to religion and forgiveness have the ability of predicting the kind of relationship between the couples and the spouse’s family. According to the results, fidelity to religion and forgiveness can contribute to establishing better and more intimate family relationship and have a key role in the maintenance and stability of the relationship between the couples and the spouse’s family.

Key words: fidelity to religion, forgiveness, couples, spouse’s family.

The Relationship of Religious Orientation
and Watching Satellite with Divorce


Mohammad Zare’i Toupkhaneh/ PhD student of general psychology, Hawzah and University Research Center                                                                                                                   mohammad358z@yahoo.com

Rahim Mir Derikvandi/ Assistant professor of psychology department, IKI

Received: 2013/05/26 - Acceopted: 2013/11/11



This research seeks to investigate the relationship of religious orientation and watching satellite with divorce. The sample consists of 262 men and women from Kermanshah applying for divorce. They voluntarily participated in the research which was conducted in Esfand (1391). An available sampling method was used in the research. A seventy-item questionnaire on religious orientation, the Single Question Scale about watching satellite and a sixteen-item questionnaire on divorce were used. The research is a quantitative and a correlation type of study. The data were analyzed by using Spearman’s correlation coefficient and a two- variable regression. The results of the analysis show that there is a negative and significant relationship between religious orientation and divorce, and there is a positive and significant relationship between watching satellite and divorce. Also, religious orientation and watching satellite can explain 13 percent of the variance in divorce. Hence, lack of fidelity to religion and watching satellite lead to increase in marriage problems and probability of divorce. The mentioned findings are along with many of local and foreign research works and based on Islamic teachings.

Key words: religion, satellite, divorce, marriage problems.