قيمت مقاله الكترونيكي : 

The Mediating Role of Cognitive Emotion Regulation Strategy in the Relationship Between Trust in God and Psychological Stubbornness

Ghavam Moltafet / Assistant Professor of Psychology at Yasuj University           moltafet@yu.ac.ir

Naser Noshadi / Assistant Professor of Psychology at Yasuj University

Fatemeh RafieiManesh / MA Student of Educational Psychology at Yasuj University

Received: 2016/05/16 - Accepted: 2016/09/22



Stubbornness is a group of peculiarities which is defined as confronting stressful events, and is influenced by individual variables such as personality, motivation, and social variables, such as family’s background. Current research is conducted among students, aiming at explaining psychological stubbornness based on trust in God through the mediation of cognitive guidelines of excitement control. For this, a sample of 381 students from Yasuj University was selected using multistage cluster random sampling method, and they have answered to scales such as Ahwaz hardiness scale, cognitive guidelines of excitement control, and the scale of trust in God. In order to analyze the data, path analysis method was taken into account. Results denoted that psychological stubbornness is influenced by trust in God and cognitive guidelines of excitement control; i.e. the components of trust in God had their direct and indirect effect on stubbornness through excitement control guidelines. According to the results, it is recommended to provide a basis for students, so that they reach higher levels of trust in God, and consultants also should bring most of their attention to the subject.

Keywords: Psychological Stubbornness, Cognitive Guidelines of Excitement Control, Trust in God.

Organizing the Primary Questionnaire of “Bravery on the Basis of Islamic Resources”


Mostafa Khoshkharam / Ph.D. Student of Psychology at Imam Khomeini Education and Research Institute


Mohammad Reza Ahmadi / Assistant Professor of Psychology at Imam Khomeini Education and Research Institute                                                                                                                       m.r.Ahmadi313@Gmail.com

Hamid RafieiHonar / Assistant Professor at Islamic Sciences and Culture Academy

Received: 2017/12/23 - Accepted: 2018/05/07                                             hamidrafii2@gmail.com



This research is conducted aiming the goal of building the primary questionnaire of bravery on the basis of Islamic resources, employing a descriptive-content analysis method. Therefore, “bravery” and related concepts, in authentic Islamic resources, were recognized, classified, and conceptually analyzed. Five concepts—bravery, valour, intercession in hard times, boldness, and assurance–were recognized for this research, respectively, and after studying them, five components named motivation for resistance, being great-hearted, arriving and acting in the adversity, defending and resistance, were selected. For data analysis, statistical indices and methods have been used in accordance with the research questions including content validity ratio (CVR), content validity index (CVI), Pearson, Spearman, Guttmann correlation, and Cronbach's alpha. In the progress of reviewing the experts’ opinions, for content validity, items with CVR and CVI values higher than 0.56 and 0.79 respectively, were confirmed; and for this, 12 experts in Islamic Sciences and Psychology have given their viewpoints. Criterion validity, by calculating the correlation coefficient of the present scale and the equal scale, is 0.661 and is significant at the level 0.01. In validating the questionnaire, the Cronbach's alpha coefficient in two experimental and final stages, was 0.902 and 0.858 respectively, and the correlation between two halves of scale is 0.602. Therefore, using Islamic resources, it is possible to create a method for measuring the subject of bravery and this method has desirable reliability and validity for research uses.

Keywords: Bravery, Positive Psychology, Primary Questionnaire, Islamic Resources.

The Effectiveness of Positive Thinking Education Based on Religious Teachings on Marital Adjustment, Resilience and the Quality of the Couples’ Life


Seyyed Morteza Ahmadi Tabar / Ph.D. Student of General Psychology, Islamic Azad University, Ahvaz, Iran


Behnam Makvandi / Assistant Professor of General Psychology, Islamic Azad University, Ahvaz


Mansour Soudani / Assistant Professor at Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz, Ahvaz, Iran

Received: 2016/05/29 - Accepted: 2016/11/09                                                    Sodani_m@scu.ac.ir



The aim of this research is to study the effectiveness of positive thinking education based on religious teachings on marital adjustment, resilience and the quality of the couples’ life. The research method was quasi-experimental with pretest-posttest with control group and follow-up. The statistical population of the study was 240 people (120 couples), whose children were studying at school in 1396-97 Hijri (2017-18), and they were selected based on available sampling, and then randomly assigned to the experimental group (20 couples) and the control group (20 couples). The experimental group were trained for 10 sessions of 90 minutes of positive thinking based on religious teachings. Marital adjustment, resiliency and quality of life questionnaires were used for data collection; and data were analyzed using multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA) and univariate analysis (ANCOVA). The obtained results showed that positive education based on religious teachings had an impact on marital adjustment, resilience and improving the quality of marital life, and this impact lasted until the one-month follow-up stage.

Keywords: Positive Thinking, Religious Teachings, Marital Adjustment, Resilience, Quality of Life.

Interpersonal Relationships within the Family and Teenagers’ Religiosity: Providing a Structural Model


Mohammad KhodayariFard / Professor of Educational Psychology and Consultation at Tehran University


Bagher GhobariBonanb / Professor of Psychology and Teaching of Exceptional Children at Tehran University


Elaheh Hejazi / Associate Professor of Psychology and Educational Sciences at Tehran University

Ramin Hashemi Ghashnigani / MA Student of Psychology at Tehran University                                    r_hashemi69@ut.ac.ir

Received: 2016/05/14 - Accepted: 2016/09/26



The purpose of this study was to provide a structural equation model for teenagers’ religiosity, based on the interpersonal relationships within the family. For this, 722 high school students (49 percent of girls and 51 percent of boys) were selected from Tehran using multi-stage random cluster sampling method, and they responded to the teenagers’ religiosity scale, attachment styles’ list (AAI), the scale of the perception of parents’ parenting styles (POPS), and researcher-made questionnaires about religiosity enhancement and following parents’ piety. The research method is included in descriptive-correlational schemes, with a structural equation model. The findings denote that the direct influences of secure attachment, anxious / avoidance, and anxious / ambivalent styles, and also religiosity enhancement, are significant on teenagers’ religiosity. Moreover, the indirect influences of secure attachment and anxious/avoidance styles, religiosity enhancement, parents’ participation and supporting autonomy, is significant on teenagers’ religiosity through mediation and following the parents. As a result, someone may conclude that, directly and indirectly, how parents interact with their children will bring an evolution to teenagers’ religiosity enhancement, and plays a dynamic considerable role in formation and growth of their religious beliefs, affairs, and behaviors.

Keywords: Attachment Styles, Parenting Styles, Following a Model, Enhancement, Structural Equation Modeling.

A Comparison of Life Satisfaction, Hope and Academic Performance of Students Who Are and Who Are Not in a Relationship with the Opposite Sex


Mohammad Zare’ei Toopkhaneh / Ph.D. Student of General Psychology at Research Institute of Hawzeh and University                                                                                                           mohammad358z@yahoo.com

Seyyedeh Khadijeh Moradiani / Ph.D. Student of Educational Psychology at Lorestan University

Hadis Cheraghian / Ph.D. Student of School Counseling at Allameh Tabataba'i University

Masoud JanBororgi / Professor of the Department of Psychology at Research Institute of Hawzeh and University          janbo@rihu.ac.ir

Received: 2016/05/08 - Accepted: 2016/09/22



Current research examines the differences of life satisfaction, hope and academic performance of both students who are and who are not in a relationship with the opposite sex. The sample size is 316 high school students in Robat Karim city, who were selected using random cluster sampling. The research is a correlational study, and the research means are a 13-item questionnaire on opposite sex, a 5-question life satisfaction questionnaire, and a 12-question Schneider Hope Questionnaire. Data were analyzed using Chi-square test, independent t-test and Kruskal-Wallis test. The findings suggest that boys are more likely to engage in sex than girls. Also, relationship with the opposite sex is correlated with decreased life satisfaction and hope. Another finding is that there is a significant difference between the academic performance of students who are and who are not in a relationship with the opposite sex. Therefore, self-control has been emphasized.

Keywords: Satisfaction, Hope, Academic Performance, Friendship, Opposite Sex.

The Role of Parental Bonding and Self-Esteem in Predicting Teenagers’ Religious Identity Styles


Roghayyeh Shirchi / Graduated Student of Islamic Education and Training (3rd Level) from Qom Women Seminary                                                                                                                     r.shirchi1360@gmail.com

Hassan Rezaeiyan Baylandi / Ph.D. Student of Psychology at Imam Khomeini Educational and research Institute


Javad Moslehi / Ph.D. Student of School of Quran and Psychology at Al-Mustafa International University

Received: 2018/06/24 - Accepted: 2018/11/28                                       Javadmoslehi1@gmail.com



This research was conducted aiming to study the role of parental bonding and self-esteem in predicting teenagers’ religious identity styles. The research design is descriptive and correlational. For this, 338 high school students in Qom, during the educational year of 1395-96 Hijri (2016-17), were chosen by cluster random sampling, and have answered to the parental bonding instrument questionnaire (PBI), the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES), and the Kraskian Religious Identity Questionnaire (ARIQ). Correlation test and stepwise regression analysis were used for data analysis. The results showed that between self-esteem and the two components of reactivity and emotional evasion of parental bonding, and successful religious identity and stereotyped religious identity, there is a significant positive relationship; while between prohibited religious identity, disturbed religious identity, and serotinous religious identity, there is a significant negative relationship. The results of stepwise multiple regression analysis showed that self-esteem, emotional reactivity, and my status will predict the successful religious identity very well. The components of emotional evasion, my status and self-esteem, are also the most important predictors of the prohibited religious identity style. Moreover, self-esteem and emotional invasion, negatively and meaningfully, explain the serotinous religious identity style. These findings highlight the important role of parent-child bonding as well as the personality traits of self-esteem in shaping teenagers’ religious identity style.

Keywords: Identity, Religious Identity, Parental Bonding, Self-Esteem.

The Mediating Role of Religious Orientation in the Relationship Between Need for Recognition and Resiliency


Hossein AabRoshan / Ph.D. of Educational Psychology from Shiraz University


Raziyeh Sheikholeslami / Assistant Professor of the Faculty of Educational Sciences and Psychology of Shiraz University                                                                                            sheslami@shirazu.ac.ir

Received: 2016/08/15 - Accepted: 2017/01/16



The purpose of this research is to study the mediating role of religious orientation in the relationship between need for recognition and resiliency with a casual model. For this purpose, 320 university students from Fars Teachers University, using multistage cluster random sampling, were selected. Data were collected by two questionnaires of need for recognition, religious orientation and adults’ resiliency scale, and then analyzed using the path analysis method. Results showed that the need for recognition is a positive significant predictor of resiliency (P<0.0001), and has a negative significant relationship with the outer religious orientation (P<0.0001), and a positive significant relationship with the internal religious orientation (P<0.0001). The outer religious orientation has predicted the resiliency dimension of family cohesion as negative and meaningful (P<0.0001), while the internal religious orientation had a significant positive prediction of the dimensions of resiliency (P<0.0001). Finally, the need for cognition had a significant relationship with resiliency (P<0.0001).

Keywords: Need for Recognition, Resiliency, Religious Orientation, University Student.