(Abstracts (Translated by: Seyyed Rahim Rastitabar


The Study of Psychological Bases and Symptoms of Patience in Quran

Najibullah Nuri*

The present article studies the psychological bases and Signs of patience from Quranic viewpoint. It aims at revealing the psychological constructs in patient persons, which enable them to show self-control in difficult situations. In view of Holy Quran’s verses, the following question must be answered: “what signs can be assigned for patience in patient individuals?” Additionally, this study deals with the psychological significance of patience, the definition of patience, and similar notions in psychology; it also states seven psychological bases for patience.

KEY WORDS: patience, self-control, self-regulation, pulse control, perseverance, endurance

The Role of Fasting

in Providing Mental Health of the Staff of Universities

Abbas Fanni Asl*/ Suran Rajabi**

The present article aims at investigating the role of fasting in providing mental health. Its subject was the effect of fasting in Ramadan on mental health of the staff of Mohaqqiq-e Aedabili University in Ardabil in the first semester of 2008-2009. 206 individuals were selected using the wholesale sampling method. The results showed a meaningful difference between pretest and posttest scores in the questionnaire of mental health. This study showed that fasting can increase the mental health of the staff of universities.

KEY WORDS: mental health, fasting, staff, depression, stress


The Role of Religion
in Reducing Aggression;a Survey Study

Sayyid Suleyman Alavi*/ Murteza Thabit Qadam**/

Siyamak Amanat***/ Zohre Nuraie****/ A’zam Husseini*****

The present study investigates the role of the individuals’ participation in religious ceremonies in mosques and holding common religious rituals in reducing and controlling aggression. This study used a descriptive-analytical method; here, 420 subjects attending mosques in Isfahan and 420 others not attending mosques were selected in 2006 through random sampling; they were studied using the scale for aggression and the AGQ questionnaire.

The results showed that there was a significant difference in the amount of aggression between the two groups (those attending the mosques and those not). Furthermore, there is an inverse relationship between the times of attending mosque and the amount of aggression; that is, the more one attends the mosque, the less his /her aggression would be. In addition, aggression occurs more in men than in women, and occurs among the single persons more than the married ones.

KEY WORS: aggression, mosque, religion, religious ceremonies

Poverty and Mental Health from Religious and Psychological Viewpoints

Sayyid Mahdi Musavi Asl*

The present article deals with different physical, cultural-social and psychological effects of poverty on mental health. Cultural poverty, isoltion, aggression, moral and religious weakness, reduction in self-esteem, stress and mental disorders are among these destructive effects. The approach of Islamic texts to the issues related to poverty and its different significances in religious texts are among other topics of this article. The reasons for disfavor of poverty in such texts are as follows: the conflict between poverty and social justice, the Impeccable Imams’ seeking refuge to God from poverty, the importance of religion for Islamic cohesion in society, the religion’s plan for transcendental goals and unwelcomed consequences of poverty from religious viewpoint. Finally, those passages implying Islam as not opposing poverty – but confirming it – have been explained.

KEY WORDS: poverty, mental health, Islamic viewpoint, cultural poverty, aggression

The Scale for Measuring Patience in Teenagers

Farideh HosseinThabit*

Patience is one of the psychological features and religious strategies through which it is possible to overcome everyday harmful psychological stresses. Here is a field study conducted through a questionnaire containing 48 questions on three topics of “patience with difficulties”, “patience with worship”, and “patience with avoiding sins”. The statistical sample of this study consisted of 148 schoolgirls selected form students in the first grade of several high schools in Thehran in 2006-2007 using random cluster sampling. The content validity of this scale was verified by the experts in Quranic and religious sciences. The reliability of this scale – calculated through the Cronbach’s Alpha Coefficient – was 0.866.

KEY WORDS: patience, teenagers, mental health, mental well-being

Spirituality, Identity,

and Mental Health in Life Span

Dr. Hussein Qamari Givi*

The Papulation of the present study includes all 20-40 year-old men and women in Ardabil who hare , have no psychological disorder, and have got a high-school or higher degree. 200 subjects were selected using cluster sampling. The subjects answered the following tests: (1) Lee Convergence Scale, (2) Berzonski’s Identity Style Scale, (3) General Health Questionnaire (GHQ), and (4) Daily Spirituality Questionnaire. Pearson’s Coefficient Correlation Test showed that there is no correlation between spirituality and mental health; but there is a significant correlation (p=0.01) between various kinds of spirituality and identity, specially the informational identity. The Regression Analysis showed that a variance of 16% is predictable for mental health by all various kinds of identity and convergence, especially social convergence. The correlation between spirituality and identity in youthful and elderly ages is meaningful, and spirituality is predictable up to 25% by identity and external convergence.

KEY WORDS: spirituality, identity, mental health and developmental stages, psychological disorders



Translated by: Seyyed Rahim Rastitabar

The Study of Psychological Aspects of Hajj Rituals and Their Effects on the Pilgrims’ Level of Piety

Muhammad Reza Ahmadi*

The present study investigates the psychological aspects of Hajj rituals and their effect on the pilgrims’ level of piety. From the total of 22500 Hajj pilgrims of Tehran Province in 2006 (22500), 62 men and 43 women were selected as the Convenient sample using a semi-empirical method. They answered the questionnaire of religious orientation in three following stages: (1) one month before Hajj pilgrimage as the pretest, (2) after the Hajj pilgrimage as the posttest, and (3) one month after their return to their hometown as the follow-up stage. The data were analyzed using the dependeant and independent T-tests as well as the one-way ANOVA (analysis of variance). The results showed that the subjects’ total scores of religious orientation were meaningfully higher in posttest than in pretest. The same meaningful difference was observed in the sub-tests of religious orientation (beliefs, rituals morality).

KEY WORDS: Hajj rituals, psychological aspects, piety.

Vol. 1, No.4 , Winter 2009

Concessionary: Imam Khomeini Educational and Research Institute

Manager: Mohammad Naser Saqaie Bi-Ria

Editor in chief: Abul-Qasem Bashiri

Executive manager: Israfil Sobhani


Authors (in alphabetic order):

ª Hujjat-ul Islam Ali Reza Arafi

Head of Research center of the seminary and university

ª Dr. Qulam Ali Afruz

Professor, Tehran University

ª Dr. Muhammad Karim Khoda panahi

Professor, Beheshti University

ª Dr. Parirukh Dadsetan

Professor, Tehran University

ª Hujjat-ul Islam Dr. M. J. Zarean

Associate Professor, Imam Khomeini Educational and Research Institute

ª Hujjat-ul Islam Dr. N.Saghaye Biria

Associate Professor, Imam Khomeini Educational and Research Institute

ª Hujjat-ul Islam Dr. Abas Ali Shameli

Associate Professor, Imam Khomeini Educational and Research Institute

ª Hujjat-ul Islam Seyyid Muhammad Qaravi

Associate Professor, Imam Khomeini Educational and Research Institute

ª Dr. Ali Fathi Ashtiani

Professor, Baqiat Allah Medical University


The contributors in this issue:

ª Ali Abotorabi

Faculty Member, Imam Khomeini Educational & Research Institute

ª AliHemmat Banari

Faculty Member, International University of Mostafa

ª Ramin Tabarrayi

M.A. in Clinical Psychology

ª Rahim Narooie

Faculty Member, Imam Khomeini Educational & Research Institute



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* MA. in Clinical Psychology, Imam Khomeini Educational and Research Institute

* Tenured Teacher in Mohaqqiq-e Ardabili University

** PhD Student in Specialized Psychology

* MA. in Psychology, The Center for Research in Behavioral Sciences, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences

** Tenured Professor in The Center for Research in Behavioral Sciences, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences

*** Psychiatrist, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences

**** Psychiatrist, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences

***** General Practitioner

* Ph.D Student in Imam Khomeini Educational and Research Institute

* Ph.D. in Psychology; Allama Tabatabaie University

* Assistant professor in Mohaqqiq-e Ardabili University

* Tenured Teacher in Imam Khomeini Eduecational and Research Institute